Arthur von Hippel (1898-2003)

Arthur von Hippel was a pioneer in the study of dielectrics, semiconductors, ferromagnetics, and ferroelectrics. He was an early advocate of the interdisciplinary approach to materials research, art and science and his example substantially furthered the science of materials.

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Von Hippel aged 100

 

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Von Hippel writing in 1982:

‘About fifty years ago, I studied the development of electrical breakdown in gases and recorded in detail the discharge phenomena by placing electrodes on photographic plates.1 The resulting pictures were known as “Lichtenberg Figures,” named after a venerated scientist and philosopher of the 18th century, George Christoph Lichtenberg, professor of astronomy in Göttingen (Figure 1).2 Faithful to his maxim of exploring nature with instruments of unusual dimensions, Lichtenberg baked a tremendous resin cake (electrophorous) for electrostatic experiments. Clambering up a ladder he rubbed the surface violently with a fox tail, got an electric shock and fell down. The room was dirty since the observatory was being painted. A dust cloud arose and — lo and behold — it settled down on the electrified surface in patterns of unusual design (Figures 2).3 Ever since that chance-discovery of 1777, “Lichtenberg Figures” have aroused the interest of physicists — not only because the variety of their forms offers one of the most beautiful spectacles in science, but because they record in visible detail the onset of electrical discharges. Returning to this project at M.I.T. before World War II, I developed with my graduate student, Fred Merrill, some sophisticated equipment — a four-stage impulse generator and a pressure tank (Figure 3) — that made it possible to take pictures on photographic plates (Figure 4) from discharges at pressures ranging from vacuum to high pressures in any gas desired. Our principal results were published in 1939.4 Then the war, with its urgent demands, interrupted our work. Subsequently the commitment of the Laboratory for Insulation Research to the “Molecular Designing of Materials and Devices” pushed its continuation further out of sight. Finally, while I was in Washington, as the science advisor to the Naval Research Laboratory, the equipment got lost. Fred Merrill, a cheerful and lovable companion on obstacle courses — both indoors and outdoors — had returned to England at the outbreak of World War II and died there in the late 1970’s. Therefore, I find myself in old age with many beautiful pictures still on hand that might be enjoyed by the lay person as “art in science.” The primary purpose of this work is to make these surprising images more generally accessible. Simultaneously, it might stimulate new thoughts about thunderstorms and lightning strokes in other worlds in the universe. Space probes have recently recorded lightning strokes on a moon of Jupiter.5

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LIGHTNING STROKES IN OTHER WORLDS

This work about stormy events is dedicated to two centenarians with whom I intimately shared the storms of our times: M.I.T.’s Electrical Engineering Department, and James Franck. When I came from Niels Bohr’s Institute in Copenhagen to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the fall of 1936, the President of M.I.T., Dr. Compton, placed me in the Electrical Engineering Department as its first physicist. The E.E. Department has become corrupted more and more by science ever since. James Franck (1882-1964) lives in many memories as a great nobleman of Science and a wonderful human being. We became close friends while going on joint adventures during my Rockefeller year at Berkeley (1927-1928) and his guestprofessorship there. He became my father-in-law in 1930.

The Onset of Electrical Discharges Electrical discharges are initiated by negative electrons (e- ) ejected from matter by photons (the photo effect), heat (thermionic emission), or intense electric fields (field-emission). Such electron “bullets,” accelerated by an applied electric voltage, collide elastically with atoms or molecules until they reach critical energies sufficient to excite or to ionize their collision partners. Excitation — first discovered by Franck and Hertz6 — promotes the atoms or molecules into a higher energy state from which they can return to the ground state by light emission. Ionization ejects an electron from the collision partner and successive repetition of this process increases the number of charge carriers in avalanche fashion. Thus, by electron impacts causing charge carrier avalanches, an insulator can be transformed into a conductor. In contrast to homogeneous conductors such as metals or conducting liquids (electrolytes), conductors produced by impact ionization have structure. The atoms or molecules, when hit by electrons with sufficient energy, are left behind as positive ions and distort the applied field by their space-charge action (Figures 5 and 6). In front of the negative electrode (the cathode), the positive ions steepen the electric field and, by positive space charge action, a cathode fall develops. The field may become so intense that it pulls additional electrons out of the metal by field emission. Those electrons in turn, accelerated to impact ionization in the cathode fall, liberate additional electrons. Thus highly conducting paths develop, which grow as sparks from the cathode into space. Similarly, electrons falling in an intense electric field towards the positive electrode (the anode) can multiply in this anode fall by impact ionization and sparks may grow from the anode into space. Light emission, caused by electronic excitation and electron capture, can imprint the phenomenon as a “Lichtenberg figure” on a photographic plate. Lightning Benjamin Franklin, in his famous kite experiment (Figure 7), demonstrated the electrical nature of lightning. The idea was that the damp cord of a kite would provide a conductor in space and lead the charge down to a suspended key. Franklin, sheltered under a dry shed, held a silk ribbon tied to the end of the cord and noted a spark jump to his grounded knuckle; he also charged a Leyden jar. Fortunately, for the history of America and of science, he was lucky: the Russian physicist G. W. Richmann was killed while repeating the experiment (Figure 8).7 Franklin’s experience led him to develop the lightning rod for the protection of buildings. In the early decades of this century, practically every house in Europe was thus protected. However, a lightning rod, if not properly grounded, is a dangerous asset, and the chance that lightning will strike a house in an unexposed location is so small that today only high, exposed structures are equipped with lightning arrestors. Lightning can be one of the most awe-inspiring phenomena in nature — as anyone who has been caught in a thunderstorm while mountain climbing knows. It is also a spectacle of unsurpassed beauty. Figures 9 to 11 show three images that imprint themselves stay indelibly in one’s mind: a thunderstorm over a city; lightning striking a water column ejected by an exploding mine; and the spectacular lightning accompanying the birth of the island of Surtsey off the Coast of Iceland.8 When lightning struck a meadow, a Lichtenberg figure of more than one meter in diameter was found burned into the grass (Fig 12). And a man killed by a lightning stroke under an apple tree had such a figure — erroneously identified as an image of the apple tree — burned on his back. Thus Lichtenberg figures and lightning are closely interrelated. Therefore, as the title of this work suggests, in addition to their inherent beauty, images of discharge phenomena in various gases under a variety of pressures might assist in the remote identification of these characteristics of the atmospheres of other planets.

Kirlian Photography and Nerve-Conduction

Recently, Lichtenberg figures have found a more doubtful application in “Kirlian photography.”9 The index finger of a person under psychological test serves as the high-voltage electrode and is pressed on a photographic plate. The pattern recorded is thought to reveal the state of physic health of the owner. Alas, if no special precautions are taken, it may be more a test of cleanliness than of godliness. On the other hand, we have begun to learn that the signals transmitted through the nervous system are of an electrical nature.10 Therefore, even though it may start as a heresy at its fringes, medicine is bound to make increasing use of electrical methods. “Electro-acupuncture,” a modern version of the classical Chinese method of “acupuncture,” has been developed by Dr. Voll and his colleagues in Germany.11 The “ionic effect” — the psycho-medical effects of positive and of negative ions inhaled during approaching weather fronts or from ionizers — is also beginning to get increased attention.12 Furious discussions have also arisen about the damage to health that may result from microwave radiation, from the stray electrical fields of high-voltage power-transmission lines, and from the magnetic fields of lowfrequency high power communication networks.13 Finally, the “electro-shock 6 LIFE IN TIMES OF TURBULENT TRANSITIONS treatment” — used by medical doctors in cases of psychosis — has been revealed to be a procedure of nearly criminal ignorance.14 Obviously, the time has come for a close cooperative effort of science, engineering and medicine to put electromedicine on the map without witchcraft approaches. In presenting this selection of Lichtenberg Figures to the general public, I therefore hope not only to provide enjoyment of the beautiful phenomena recorded but also to stimulate scientific curiosity about electrical effects observed in unusual situations — be they micro- or macroscopic. Future studies will be able to use today’s advanced color-photography as an additional source of insight — an enviable prospect. Postscript Lightning recorded as Lichtenberg figures transforms terror into enchantment. The genesis of complex phenomena unfolds in beautiful designs studied by scientists in puzzled contemplation (Figure 13).15 In these images, electronic excitation and ionization, the release of charge carriers from surfaces and gases, their cumulative action and re-absorption, the effects of space charges and of field distortion all can be studied in detail. And, in principle, the way is open to extend these studies from gases to liquids and solids (Figure 14). Time has run out for this observer. Old age has called a halt. But hopefully some young scientist somewhere may be challenged by the beauty of Lichtenberg figures to explore further the turbulent events that transform insulators into conductors.

 

REFERENCES 1. A. von Hippel, “Erdfeld, Gewitter und Blitz,” Die Naturwissenschafter 22, 701-712 (1934).

2. Reproduction of a drawing preserved at the University Library in Göttingen.

3. G.C. Lichtenberg, Novi. Comment. Göttingen, 8, 168 (1777).

4. F.H. Merrill and A. von Hippel, J. Appl. Phys. l0, 873-887 (1939).

5. The original says, “in the Rings of Saturn.”

6. J. Franck and G. Hertz: Verh. der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft XVI, 512 (1914).

7. cf. Bern Dibner, Benjamin Franklin, Electrician, (Norwalk, CN: Burndy Library, 1976).

8. cf. Sigudur Thorarinsson, Surtsey, (New York: The Viking Press, 1967).

9. cf. The Kirlian Aura (Anchor Press, Doubleday 1974).

10. cf. the recent work of H. Athenstead and his coworkers in, Science 216, 1018 (1982).

11. R. Voll, Elektroakupunktur, (ML Verlag, 1971); H.Leonhardt, Grundlager der Elektroakupunktur nach Voll (ML Verlag 1977).

12. Fred Syka with Alan Edmonds, The Ion Effect (printed in the USA, copyright 1977).

13. cf. e.g. the letter exchange, “high tension,” Proceedings of the New York Academy of Sciences vol. 18, October 1978; and “The invisible Threat”, Saturday Review, September 15, 1979.

14. Stephen Ford and Pamela Vaughn, “A Case for More Regulation” Physician East, July 1979, pp. 21-24.

15. Woodcut by M.C. Escher, made for our book, The Molecular Designing of Materials and Devices, (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1965).

My MA degree show installation – ‘Kinetic Energy’

 

 

I have recently completed the MA Art and Science course at Central Saint Martins. For my degree show, I wanted to present work that mapped and visually traced a variety of processes including oscillations, Lichtenberg figures and pendulum movements using a variety of mechanisms like harmonographs and Wimshurst machines. My practice involves finding ways of visualising mathematical concepts and the nature of physical laws, from electromagnetism and sound to elementary particles. I have been researching and selecting different types of natural phenomena that can be described using equations.

MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AND LICHTENBERG FIGURES

I applied to show my work at Imperial College as part of the Center for Doctoral Training event. I displayed some pieces that are direct visualisations of static electricity (Lichtenberg figures, see below). During my time at the college, I spoke to MRes student Jeevan Soor about my works. He spoke to me about Maxwell’s equations and how they help to describe Lichtenberg figures. I wondered if the toner dusting process had been used in forensic science and he mentioned that footprints are recorded using an electrostatic lifter. Forensic scientists use a device that generates static charge, and the charge draws the dust from the print on to the black plastic.

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I have been exploring the possibilities of using electricity as an artistic tool. Through using a Wimshurst machine, I have been charging up plastic surfaces with static then dusting powders on the surface, thus visualising the invisible Lichtenberg figures left in the plastic. I then exposed the patterns onto photopolymer plates, resulting in works that are visually similar to the piece above. The works are direct visual representations of electricity.

TUNING FORK DRAWINGS

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I demonstrated and recorded sound oscillations. This is a recording of sound oscillations on a sooted glass plate. One of the two prongs was equipped with a metal tip. I also used the tuning fork on a zinc etching plate. (below)

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KEPLER’S LAWS DRAWN IN SULPHUR

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The artwork below depicts different phases of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction (2016). The zebrafish is a model organism for pattern formation in vertebrates. First found in chemicals in dishes, (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) then in the stripes and spirals and whorls of animals, Turing patterns are everywhere. Perhaps these patterns extend to ecosystems and galaxies. My plotting electrode and its graphical depiction of Kepler’s laws (image above, 2017) is also a visual representation of Turing inhibitors because the electrode is constantly turning on and off – hence the zebrafish texture.

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I’m interested in making links between processes, using the micro to explain the macro – for example, Lissajous figures drawn in sand could be illustrative of Lissajous orbits – the orbital trajectories of planets. My work unravels like Ariadne’s thread, proceeding by using multiple means and attempting exhaustive applications of logic.
Some of the processes are mathematically chaotic in nature, and leave behind a fractal pattern. The idea of chaotic patterning is fascinating and may seem contradictory – one pendulum may represent chaotic motion, the other harmonic – the Lichtenberg figures are chaotic discharges, but may also display self-similarity.

I’m interested in the idea of the mechanical prosthesis between the artist and the art – the work being able to describe something of the natural world. The performative aspect of the work also takes the form of scientific demonstration to be able to describe something about the inventor or discoverer of the equipment or process I am demonstrating.

The delineation of time is also important – simply through visual analysis, the individual strokes of some of my pieces can be given time stamps. The marks produced by plotting electrodes change in reference to its speed – the same can be said for the tuning fork works.

How do these small (Wimshurst machine) and giant (the Large Hadron Collider) technological devices help us to understand the physical universe on different scales?

The relationships that connect this world together are mysterious, indeed, why do these relationships exist? Why and when does mathematical structure appear? Is it that the structure of physical laws is transmitted from a solitary point – the symmetry that becomes diminished and scatters as the universe unwinds itself to the viewer?

50 Unit exposure vs 25, ‘Bayer MaterialScience’

New photopolymer etching, 420 x 594 mm, named ‘Bayer MaterialScience’ (2016)

I named it ‘Bayer MaterialScience’ due to the text that becomes visualised through the process I use.

I’m using the usual process with static electricity, discharging it onto plastic and then visualising it with toner powder. An interesting development with this process has been the discovery of text. Usually I am just able to visualise the static charge, but I also have been able to visualise the text on the plastic wrapping. As the plastic wrapping is peeled away, I already hear static clicks – and a negative of the writing is left on the plastic. I then visualise the text. Interestingly, through the photopolymer process, the writing finds itself ‘corrected’ – it is no longer back to front in the final etching. This whole process in the etching workshop is a multi-layered deconstruction and play with the printing process.

 

Below, I also compare the photopolymer etching produced by using a 50 and a 25 unit exposure. I am not entirely sure which look I prefer. I think some of the detail has been burned out for the 50 unit exposure – some of the richness is lacking – but I like the particularly strong contrast for the 50 unit exposure and the way the text has become slightly accentuated.

 

I explore CERN

From the Central Saint Martins website, images by Nicolas Strappini

http://blogs.arts.ac.uk/csm/2017/01/16/ma-art-and-science-explore-cern/

From experiments with cloud chambers to exploring NASA space models and a meeting with a Nobel Prize winner, 21 students and staff from our MA Art and Science explored CERN on an intensive four-day trip to Geneva. Some of them share their experiences of the trip below. 

Below: Nicolas Strappini at the Large Hadron Collider

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“We set out to find out as much as we could about the work and life of CERN, challenging our preconceptions of how art could help with the process of thinking and conceiving new ideas.  We found out so much about everything from detectors to the photons in the Large Hadron Collider. I’m looking forward to making more black hole experiments back at CSM.“
Heather Scott, second year student

“One of my highlights was the final lecture from Prof. John Ellis, who reminded us of a painting by Gauguin which had the following statements tucked in a corner: ‘Where do we come from?’, ‘What are we?’, ‘Where are we going? CERN focused the mind on attempting to better understand the universe and what we can contribute to the sharing of scientific thought.”
Maria Macc, second year student

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“I was particularly keen to experience Mick Storr’s cloud chamber experiments with my colleagues. We were challenged to think as physicists or meteorologists, to create our own chambers and describe our findings. Eventually we worked through our observations and in one afternoon we had created a device to display cosmic rays which are all around us!”
Nicolas Strappini, second year student

“CERN’s mission is to explore the origins of the universe, answering questions about where we come from and what we are made of. The science involves a discourse engaged with data, numbers, chemicals and particles. But the outcome is about humans and humanity, and the individuals driving this search are as important as the knowledge coming out of it.”
Jill Mueller, 1st year MAAS

We are very grateful to Dr Mick Storr, Dr Michael Hoch and all their colleagues at CERN. And, thanks to our colleague Dr Andy Charalambous, Associate Lecturer on the MA, for setting up the trip.

Following this trip, the students along with the accompanying tutors plan to create a display inspired by their visit – follow MA Art and Science on Twitter or Facebook for exhibition and research updates.

The experiences and insights featured in this piece were sourced by second year MA Art and Science student Maria Macc.

Open Studio event and performances from Kyoto Saga University of the Arts; Olfactory art

Olfactory art is somewhat uncommon. However, there is something intoxicating about the idea – humans have become fascinated by searching for heady scents – from ambergris to musk. Quite often, the most intoxicating smells seem to come from the most unsavoury sources – whale vomit (ambergris) and musk – secretions from mammalian scent glands.

It seems we value our visual and auditory senses more highly when considering art – during the performances, an artist from Kyoto Saga mentions how smell is acknowledged, then dropped immediately. We don’t really consider how subjective our experience of scent may be. According to this Ted talk, 75% of people can’t detect an unusual smell in urine after the consumption of asparagus. http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-do-we-smell-rose-eveleth

There seems to be a whole world of untapped potential in the specific world of smells.

I very much enjoyed smelling the sandalwood incense and learning about Kōdō – the specific ceremony. The whole experience was intoxicating. The performance piece and interactive elements involved in the artwork documented below contained a sense of tension – spectators watched as they waited for the participants to drop pink or white flowers. Dropping a red flower would signal that the participant found a certain aroma sexually exciting. It turned out that nobody dropped a red flower. During conversation with people about the performance, one spectator noted that the interpretation of pink or red as sexual and white as pure was somewhat outdated, and that for perfume adverts, this dichotomy was almost always echoed. It is reminiscent of the blue for a boy and pink for a girl gender myth.

The Open Studio was a worthwhile event. I had many interesting conversations and have a lot of reading to do.

I was spoken to about SQUIDS (are the basis of MEG http://organizations.utep.edu/portals/1475/nagel_bat.pdf

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SQUID is a very sensitive magnetometer used to measure extremely subtle magnetic fields… I want to see how I can incorporate this idea into my work.

www.bbk.ac.uk/science/psychology/our-staff/adam-taylor-tierney

Dr Adam Taylor Tierney — Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London

I also want to research Adam Taylor Tierney a bit more:

Dr Adam Taylor Tierney specialises in the human auditory and motor systems that provide the foundation for abilities such as language and music in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Birkbeck, University of London.

bbk.ac.uk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mSkzURJ3y_Y

Journal of Pedagogic Development: https://journals.beds.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/jpd/article/view/320/500

I also found out about stochastic processes in relation to my work, and the matter of Monte Carlo models and statistical corrections for gyroscopic motion.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220984516_Head_Motion_Prediction_in_Augmented_Reality_Systems_Using_Monte_Carlo_Particle_Filters

PERFORMANCE / EXHIBITION AT ARTS CATALYST, 29TH OCTOBER

Summary of my piece of work:

 

Nicolas Strappini

 

This piece of work references Cage’s contribution to the original ‘9 Evenings’ (1966) event through the use of static and the sounds of it being discharged using a machine. John Cage applied the principle of randomness by picking up radio signals – my Lichtenberg figure patterns seen in this piece are ‘chaotic’. In radio reception, noise is the superposition of white noise and other disturbing influences. These noises are often referred to as static. I am playing with two meanings of the word static – the noun being the way Cage intended, the adjective being the way I intend it to be used in reference to my piece. I also wanted to produce a live-feed performance, referencing Whitman’s ‘Side Effects’ (2016).

 

Title of exhibition:

 

Why make it simple, when you can make it complex?

 

This day long event has arisen from a month long collaboration between a group of students from MA Art and Science at Central Saint Martins, UAL, and recent graduates from Goldsmiths and Farnham. The group came together as performers in Robert Whitman’s new commission ‘Side Effects‘, produced as part of Arts Catalysts current season ‘9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering Revisited 1966/2016’. In collaboration with The Performance Studio, Arts Catalyst has since hosted weekly workshops for the group to develop a practical and historical perspective on performance practice and transdisciplinary working. The resulting performative installation involves individual works, collectively mediated by the group.

‘Why make it simple, when it can be made Complex?’

‘From Simplicity to Complexity and Back Again’ [Luhmann quote]

Notes / Points:

  • How does Technology help us, how does it create disadvantages?
  • Have we made things more difficult with technology, by trying to find solutions?
  • What is the impact of technology on our culture, communication and well-being?How can Performance be interpreted/transformed into our era? What is new? What can be renewed?

 

  • How can we use technology to reawaken the habituated mind?
  • Does technology/automation lead to a mechanical mind in the first place?
  • Does functional transcendence (Baudrillard) where objects act beyond what we expect lead to enhanced consciousness?
  • Why do we attribute human characteristics to technological objects?
  • Does the use of technology result in a loss of individuality?

 

The project ‘Why make it Simple when it can be made Complex’  has arisen from a two month collaboration between students from MA Art and Science, CSM and external alumni Mary Simmons, MA Fine Art, UCA Farnham . The group was brought together as part of the recent event of Arts Catalyst revisiting the ‘9 Evenings’ 50 years after its presentation in New York. During September the artists worked together on a performance with Robert Whitman, who participated in the original event. The project exhibited on the 29th of October is showing works in progress  interpreting performance in a time of increasing technological integration in our life. The participants respond to the collective research with their individual backgrounds, such as e.g. neurology, theatre design, fine art….   The works presented aim to respond with humor and awareness to the fast forwards developments in the Anthropocene, and invite the audience to interact and participate in this open debate.

 

Side Effects by Robert Whitman, Part of 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering Revisited 1966/2016. A night of new cross-disciplinary performance art and an archival exhibition at Central St Martins, London, 7th October 2016

 

 

Nicolas

High output air ionizer    7   Pounds

Mask                               5   Pounds

Mary Suggestion

Each of us could provide a bibliography of 3 books/journals etc that give a flavour of our research interests. Eg My interests include neuroscience-pre-cognitive affect, responses to objects, and space.

 

Reading list =

Damasio, A. (2012) Self comes to mind: Constructing the conscious brain. London: Vintage.

Baudrillard, J (2006) The System of Objects (radical thinkers).  London: Verso Books.

Lefebvre, H. and Nicholson-Smith, D. (1991) The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

 

Installation View: Below

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National Art Library Visit – Research

National Art Library Visit – Research

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There is scant information about contemporary art in the National Library, but I did find some reference to Jackson Pollock’s painting methods.

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Difficulties In The Scientific Study of Synthetic Materials In Paints 

 

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My dissertation mentions the consistencies of paints and their comparison to different sorts of particles found in a cloud chamber. The ‘Jackson Pollock painting’ will display different strokes and intensities of line depending on how he has ‘flung the paint, like a lasso’.

 

Pollock’s introduction of synthetic binders and resins – ethyl silicate – was ‘one of the most important revolutions in the history of painting’ . (1)

There is a difference between the look of an alpha and beta particle track.

The work of Wilson, the inventor of the Wilson chamber, has also been held in similarly high esteem. Rutherford described his invention as  ‘the most original and wonderful instrument in scientific history.’

 

‘I had in view the possibility that the track of an ionising particle might be made visible and photographed by condensing water on the ions which it liberated’ – this introduction of condensed water to visualise these ionising particles could be compared to Pollock’s introduction of synthetic binders. Because of the synthetic binders, the paints would now dry at a much faster rate, changing painting as an art form for practitioners.

Wilson’s chamber would go on to be further developed by Blackett who made many important discoveries with it, notably the demonstration of the creation and annihilation of electron-positron pairs. Particle physics has become useful in a day-to-day way – X-ray, proton and ion therapies are used to treat cancer, and the rays can also determine the precise structure of viruses and mutations that cause disease and screen potential drug candidates.

‘Why is physics useful? Think of an expedition climbing Mount Everest. Is someone climbing Everest useful to you in everyday life? Not at first glance, no matter how interesting it is for its own sake. But fleece jackets and breathable waterproof fabrics were first developed for serious mountaineering expeditions and are now cheap and indispensable.’

10/29/13

By Kelen Tuttle, ‘Why particle physics matters’

 

The ‘scientific development’ of the art of painting, which changed the length of time people need to wait for their paints to dry, could be compared to the development of particle physics – from understanding more about the universe to cancer treatment.

Both, it would seem, improve the quality of life of people and practitioners. Was Pollock’s ‘discovery’ inadvertent, or does it matter?

Wilson set out with a clear goal – to imitate the Brockenspectre in laboratory settings.

Could it be the inadvertency of art that separates it from the purposeful science?

 

 

SYNTHETIC BINDER

 

 

(1). Lodge.R.G.,  A history of synthetic painting media with special reference to commercial materials, American Institute for Conservation pre-prints of the 16th Annual Meeting, (1988), pp.118-127.